Enabling Environment

Many countries use subsidies and other incentives. But they are mostly restricted to the construction of anaerobic digesters. Stimulating best practices hardly involves components of integrated manure management. Often large farm-equipment is available but due to the profit of scale only used by larger farms.

Lost knowledge

The introduction of synthetic fertilizers gave farmers an opportunity to easily correct any flaws in their crop production system without having to worry about the use (or misuse) of organic fertilizers. Over time this reduced the indigenous knowledge on integrated manure management in which manure is eventually used to fertilize crops. Even today some countries still subsidize synthetic fertilizer use; thus creating a non-stimulating environment for good manure management.

Low knowledge levels

Small-scale farmers consistently reported to be less knowledgeable than medium-size and large-scale farmers. The knowledge level of farmers increases with farm size and seems to be related to the level of education (figure 4 and 5). Integrated manure management tends to be most present in school curricula at the level of agricultural universities and vocational training courses.

Figure 4. Knowledge level of small-scale farmers and lower educated people
Green = high: know it all
Yellow = moderate: know enough
Orange = low: know a little bit but not enough