South, East and Southeast Asia

The 2014 global assessment covered 9 Asian countries.

  1. Bangladesh;
  2. China;
  3. Viet Nam;
  4. Thailand;
  5. Nepal;
  6. Philippines;  
  7. Lao PDR;
  8. Malaysia;
  9. Myanmar.

Bangladesh

Manure Policy

MP is part of other policies and defined at national level. The Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Environment are involved in MP definition. At some points perhaps also the Ministries of Energy, Fisheries and Livestock (MFL) and Public Health are involved. Two respondents state that policies of these ministries are very complementary, while one respondent states that policies are very contradictory. MP is not based on prohibitions and rules. There are no restrictions to livestock farming and penalties are not clearly defined. There are some stimulating activities of good practices in MM, but not available for all farmers. Stimulating activities include pilot/demonstration farms and increased extension efforts/training programs for farmers. There is no or weak enforcement and very weak coordination between enforcement efforts by ministries.

Enabling Environment

Several services are available and used by different farm sizes, especially medium and large-scale farms. The services available include: credit issued both by government and non-government sources, vocational training, extension/advice, both from government and non-government sources, technical assistance, contractors, large farm-equipment, national laboratories, subsidies for fertilizer and fuel by the government, and guarantee for credit by non-government. Television, newspaper and farmer’s magazine are the most widespread tools of communication, with social media mostly available on larger scales. Incentives like training, adapted farm advice, access to inputs, subsidies, soft credit, credit guarantee, access to markets and higher prices, are used to stimulate farmers to improve their IMM. Knowledge about IMM is not available in the curriculum in schools/courses. The average knowledge level about MM is mediocre across different actors, with the exception of local trainers/teachers.

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China

Manure Policy

MP is part of other policies and is defined both at national and regional levels. MP at national level is defined by the Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Energy and Ministry of Public Health. Policies of these ministries are contradictory. MP is a restrictive policy. There are some restrictions to livestock farming, and penalties are not clearly defined with some room for personal interpretation. Every ministry has its own enforcement agency with strong or very strong enforcement. There is a weak coordination between enforcement efforts by ministries. The activities checked include discharge/storage and application of manure. There is strong stimulation of good practices, such as pilot/demonstrative farms, subsidies to investment and guarantee of finance. Stimulation activities are not available for all farmers. The administrative burden on farmers varies from low to very heavy.

Enabling Environment

Several services are available and used by middle-size and large-size farms. There is a lack of access to some services in smallholder farms, such as subsidy and credit by government. Available are subsidy by government, credit by government and non-government, extension/advice by government and non-government, technical assistance, contractors, large farm-equipment, vocational training and national laboratories. Television is available to farms of all sizes. Other forms of communication do not reach smallholder farmers. Results indicate subsidies and adapted farm advice as incentives are used, other incentives mentioned are soft credit, free farm equipment, training, access to markets and lower taxes. MM knowledge is addressed very little in education. Although government and non-government extension workers and local teachers/trainers are assessed to be very knowledgeable, the average knowledge level on MM is low for smallholder farmers and staff on middle-sized farms.

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Viet Nam

Manure Policy

MP is part of other national policies. The Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Environment are involved in MP definition. At some points also the Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Science and Technologies are involved. Policies of ministries are complementary. One response indicates that there are some restrictions to livestock farming, with not clear definitions of penalties and no enforcement. Another response states a very restrictive policy, with very clear definition of penalties and very strong enforcement practices and coordination between ministries. There are strong stimulation activities of good practices, but these are not always available for all farmers. The level of administrative burden on farmers is moderate.

Enabling Environment

The available services offered by government and non-government are: subsidy, credit, guarantee for credit, vocational training, extension/advice, technical assistance, contractors, large farm-equipment and national laboratories. Smallholder farmers and middle-size farms use most MM services. Large-scale farmers do not use some services. All communication tools are available to farmers regardless of the farm size. Incentives are used to stimulate farmers to improve their IMM by ministries, NGOs, sector organizations, agricultural processors/traders. Incentives are subsidies, soft credit, training (knowledge), adapted farm advice, access to inputs, access to markets and lower taxes. Knowledge about IMM is taught in agricultural colleges, vocational training courses, and in secondary schools. The average knowledge level is relatively low among smallholder farmers and staff on larger farms, but it is extensive among government extension workers.

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Thailand

Manure Policy

The problem driven MP is part of other policies and defined at national level. It is part of pollution control policy of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, part of the biogas promotion policy of the Ministry of Energy, part of the disease control policy of the Ministry of Health, and also part of the green agriculture policy of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MoAC). In response to the National policy on green growth economy, MoAC has implemented the Green Agriculture City Project as a flagship project which addresses MM as waste management in livestock production systems. Two respondents indicate that policies are very complementary, while a private sector respondent indicates that policies are contradictory. There are some restrictions to livestock farming with clear definition of penalties. Stimulation of good practices is not available for all farmers. Every ministry has its own enforcement agency, but only some issues are checked by the enforcement entities, such as manure discharge, manure storage and stocking rate/herding size. There is a heavy but not comprehensive administrative burden on farmers.

Enabling Environment

Some services for MM are available to both smallholder farmers and middle-sized farms, while a few are not available for large-scale farms. Available services include subsidy by government, credit by government and non-government, extension/advice by government and non-government, technical assistance, contractors, large farm-equipment, national laboratories, subsidy to fertilizer, vocational training and fuel by government. Communication tools such as farmer’s magazine and social media are available at farms of all sizes, but farmer’s magazines are only used by large-scale farms. Incentives like subsidies, soft credit and training are used by ministries to stimulate farmers to improve their IMM. Knowledge about IMM is extensively addressed in agricultural colleges and vocational training courses.

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Nepal

Manure Policy

Nepal does not have any policies that affect the management of manure.

Enabling Environment

Extension/advice by government is available to farms of all sizes. Subsidy by non-government, extension/advice by non-government and technical assistance are only available to smallholder farmers. Vocational training and national laboratories are available to both smallholder farmers and middle-sized farms. Television and social media are available to farms of all sizes, while farmer’s magazine and newspaper are only used by large-scale farms. Incentives to stimulate farmers to improve their IMM are only used by agricultural processors/traders. These include subsidies, soft credit, training, access to inputs, access to markers, and lower taxes. Knowledge about IMM is extensively addressed in agricultural colleges and vocational training courses. Smallholder farms and local teachers/trainers know a little bit about MM, while staffs of large-scale farms know enough to be competent.

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Philippines

Manure Policy

MP is part of other policies and is defined at local level. The Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Environment are involved in MP definition but their policies are very contradictory. There are some restrictions to livestock farming with unclear definition of penalties. There is a weak stimulation of good practices through increased extension efforts/training programs for farmers. There is one enforcement agency, but MP rules are not enforced and there is a weak coordination between ministries. Manure discharge and storage is checked by the enforcement entity. The administrative burden on farmers is low.

Enabling Environment

Most MM services are available, especially to smallholder farmers and middle-sized farms. Technical assistance is only available to large-scale farms, while subsidy by government is available to smallholder farmers only. Other services by government and non-government include: credit, guarantee for credit, vocational training, extension/advice. Also contractors and large farm-equipment are available. Communication tools, except radios are not widely available to farmers. No incentives are used to improve IMM. Knowledge about IMM is only available at agricultural colleges and vocational training courses. Staffs of large-scale farms and local teachers/trainers seem to have extensive knowledge about MM, while smallholder farms know just a little.

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Lao PDR

Manure Policy

Lao PDR does not have any policies which affect the management of manure.

Enabling Environment

Some services to MM are available and used, but only to smallholder farms: credit by non-government, vocational training, extension/advice by government and non-government, and technical assistance. Televisions and newspaper services are available are available to farms of all sizes. Incentives are used to stimulate farmers to improve their IMM by ministries, NGOs, sector organizations, agricultural processors/traders and universities, which include subsidies, training (knowledge) and adapted farm advice. There seems to be no education on IMM. Average knowledge level on MM is relatively poor, especially among smallholder farmers and local teachers/trainers.

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Malaysia

Manure Policy

MP is part of other policies and is defined at national level. The Ministry of Agriculture is involved with MP definition, and no other ministries share legislations and measures related to MM. It seems that MP is a coherent set of rules. MP has very strong restrictions to livestock farming with very clear definitions of penalties. There is also very strong stimulation of good practices. This includes pilot/demonstration farms and increased extension efforts/training programs for farmers. There is one enforcement agency with very strong enforcement level, which checks manure discharge, manure storage, manure application, time/period, and stocking rate/herd size. There is a very heavy administrative burden on farmers as a result of MP.

Enabling Environment

Some services on MM are available, and to farms of all sizes: guarantee for credit by non-government, vocational training, extension/advice by government, technical assistance, large farm-equipment and national laboratories. Television, newspaper and farmer’s magazine are available to all sized farms. Incentives are used to stimulate farmers to improve their IMM by ministries: training (knowledge), adapted farm advice, access to input and markets and higher prices. Knowledge about IMM is only available at agricultural colleges and vocational training courses. Smallholder farmers know much less about IMM than staff on large-scale farms.

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Myanmar

Manure Policy

Myanmar does not have any policies which affect the management of manure.

Enabling Environment

Extension/advice by government and national laboratories are available to farms of all sizes, while extension/advice by non-government and technical assistance is available only to smallholder farmers and middle-sized farms. Only television and farmer’s magazine are available to farmers. There are no incentives used to stimulate IMM. Knowledge about MM is extensively available at secondary education level and in agricultural colleges. Smallholder farmers and staff on middle-sized farms know significantly less about MM than government and non-government extension workers.

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