Sub-Saharan Africa

The 2014 global assessment covered 12 African countries.

  1. Ethiopia;
  2. Kenya;
  3. Malawi;
  4. Rwanda;
  5. Cameroon;
  6. Ghana;
  7. Nigeria;
  8. Senegal;
  9. Togo;
  10. Mali;
  11. Burkina Faso;
  12. Niger.

Ethiopia

Manure Policy

Ethiopia does not have a single MP, but it is implemented at the state level. The policies appear to be fairly complementary, and several aspects of MM are the responsibility of two or even three ministries. However, there are other aspects of MM that are not covered by any ministry (e.g. nutrient excretion, manure treatment and storage, spatial planning or zoonoses). The policies tend to be promoted through pilots, extension services and financial incentives with very little to no enforcement resulting in a low administrative burden to the farmers. Ethiopia currently developed a strategy for a Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE ) that supersedes all development. Therefore all new developments need to be consistent with this strategy.

Enabling Environment

Subsidies, credit and guarantees of credit tend to be focused on smallholder farms, although NGOs may offer subsidies to middle-sized farms as well. Training, extension and extension services also tend to focus on smallholder farms. Information is made available to farmers, although it is primarily the larger farmers that use TV, Newspapers or social media to access this information. Radio however, would be an excellent media to reach farmers as most farmers tend to have small radios. Incentives to improve MM are used both by ministries and NGOs, with subsidies, credit, credit guarantees and training being the most widespread. The training seems to be most important for smallholder farms since their level of knowledge of proper MM is low. As a part of the CRGE, the government and several NGOs are also involved in expansion of biogas production.

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Kenya

Manure Policy

Kenya also has a number of policies by different ministries (Agriculture, Environment, Energy and Health) that relate to MM. These policies are federal, but are implemented at a local level, however they often conflict with each other. One policy or another covers all aspects of MM, with most of them covered by policies by either the Agriculture or the Environment ministry. Discharge of manure and zoonoses are covered under the Ministry of Public Health. Good practices are promoted through the use of pilots, training, and financial incentives. There are also some restrictive policies, although enforcement is weak and spread across the different agencies.

Enabling Environment

The Kenyan government relies more on NGOs to provide financial incentives (either credit or subsidies), although they may provide guarantees for credit to smallholder farmers. However, they do provide training, extension services, technical assistance etc. to farmers of all types. Also available in Kenya are contractors with equipment, including large farming equipment, and national laboratories for soil and feed analysis. Although the contractors, large equipment and laboratories are available for all farmers, they are too expensive for small-scale farmers and are used primarily by the large farms. In Kenya, there is a much wider use of televisions, newspapers, magazines and social media, so information can be communicated to all farmers using these media. However, radio is still widely used as well. Incentives, primarily financial, for improved MM are also offered by NGOs and sector organizations. There are some incentives for improving knowledge.

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Malawi

Manure Policy

Malawi has a very limited MP that is organized almost completely through the Ministry of Agriculture. However, there seem to be huge gaps with their policy as the policy does not cover anaerobic digestion, application, discharge, air or water pollution or zoonoses. There is more emphasis on stimulating good practices through the use of training and pilots. The lack of strong enforcement results in low administrative burdens for the farmers.

Enabling Environment

The government of Malawi uses most of the services described (e.g. subsidies, credit, training, extension etc.) to help out farmers. And although smallholder farmers tend to be the focus, many of the programs (excluding subsidies) are available for medium and large farms as well. Most of the media mentioned reach only medium and large scale farms, which means that other media need to be investigated in order to pass on information to the smallholder farmers. Radio is likely more common on smallholder farms. The level of knowledge around MM tends to increase with higher education and with the size of the farms. Also, most of the people doing the extension work have a sufficient background and therefore they know enough about MM, although there is still more to learn. Finally, the government has published an English technical report that describes how to “make” manure (Malawi manure making manual by the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development).

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Rwanda

Manure Policy

Rwanda has a MM policy that is not a part of another policy, however there are a number of different agencies that are responsible for the management of manure. The different policies from the various ministries however, tend to be fairly complementary. Unlike most other African countries they have a number of additional ministries that are also responsible for MM including, the Ministry of Natural Resources, Disaster Management and Trade and Industry. The Ministry of Agriculture tends to be responsible for most aspects of MM, although Environment (Manure application and water pollution) and Public Health (Air pollution and Zoonoses) also feature. The Rwandan government stimulates good practices; however, they also use prohibition and rules that are lightly enforced, resulting in a higher administrative burden on farmers than many other African countries.

Enabling Environment

The government of Rwanda does not provide either subsidies or credit, but they will guarantee credit for middle and large-scale farmers. Credit, subsidies and credit guarantees for smallholder farmers are provided by the NGO sector. Training and other forms of technical assistance are made available to all farmers, while contractors and laboratory facilities tend to be available just to the medium and large-scaled farmers; again, likely because these are cost-prohibitive to the smallholders. The media listed for spreading the message to farmers tend to just reach the medium and large-scale farmers. It is likely that radio would have a better chance to reach the smallholders. There are also incentives available for improving MM, with NGOs and other sector organizations providing subsidies, training, adapted farm advice and some free equipment. It appears as though the training is important as the level of knowledge on IMM tends to be fairly low with farmers and slightly higher with the extension workers.

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Cameroon

Manure Policy

Cameroon also has a MM policy that is embedded in other policies. The policy itself is supported by a number of international agencies such as FAO and UNDP. The policies themselves are federal but implemented at state and local levels. There are a number of different ministries involved, but their policies tend to be complementary. Most of the regulations around MM tend to be organized through the Ministry of Environment, although Public Health and Agriculture are also involved. The manure policies are fairly strongly based on prohibitions and regulations although the enforcement of these regulations tends to be lacking. Good practices are weakly encouraged through the use of pilots, extension and some financial incentives. All this results in a moderately high administrative burden for farmers.

Enabling Environment

Cameroon provides subsidies to the middle and large scale farms, while the NGO sector provides subsidies and credit to smallholders. Vocational training and extension work follow a similar trend with the government focussed on the medium and large-scale farms while the NGOs focus on the smallholders. Technical assistance from government officials is only available for small and medium farms. Contractors, large farm-equipment and the facilities at national laboratories are available, but due to cost are only “really” used by medium and large-scale farmers. The media for passing on information to farmers is much more widely accessed than in many other African countries with TV and social media used by smallholders as well as the medium and large-scale farmers. Incentives are offered by both the government and non-government sector and include subsidies, access to inputs and markets, free equipment and lower taxes. The knowledge level around IMM is moderate; lower with smallholder farms and at lower levels of education and higher on the larger farms and with extension staff and trainers.

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Ghana

Manure Policy

Ghana has a MP that is part of another policy. It adopts international, national and regional policies whereby each region has specific policies based on the predominant livestock and crops in the region. The MP is governed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Energy, which complement each other very well. The policies in Ghana are quite vast and cover all aspects considered in the questionnaire. The MM policy is equally strongly based on prohibitions as well as on the stimulation of good practices like pilot demonstration farms and trainings. Penalties for defaulting on the MM policy are also clear. Despite the clear policies, enforcement is still weak and is mainly based on manure storage and manure application.

Enabling Environment

Financial assistance to farmers in Ghana is limited to government subsidies. There is no credit or guarantee for credit from government and nothing from NGOs. The NGOs do play a role in providing extension and advice, although the ministry also provides training and other technical assistance. Contractors are also available for all size of farms. National laboratory facilities are available but only to those that can pay (i.e. medium and large farms). The farmers, regardless of size, can all access the various media, although it appears that there are no Farmer’s magazines available. The agricultural industry provides most of the incentives for IMM including training and access to inputs and markets. Knowledge of IMM ranges from very little (smallholder farmers) to knowing pretty much everything (extension workers and trainers). This is likely due to the differences in education, as agricultural colleges and vocational training courses provide excellent information on IMM.

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Nigeria

Manure Policy

As in most other countries in the region, Nigeria has a MP that is part of another policy. It has an international policy from the UN which is the base for the national policy. Three ministries define the MP: Agriculture, Environment and they work very complementarily to each other. The Ministry of Environment is playing a stronger role as it regulates manure storage, aerobic digestion, manure application, discharge, air pollution and water pollution. Meanwhile the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for nutrient excretion, anaerobic digestion and spatial planning of farms. Penalties for defaulting on the MM policy in Nigeria are well defined and the policy has stronger emphasis on prohibitions than on the stimulation of good practices.

Enabling Environment

Financial assistance to farmers in Nigeria is non-existent. Training and extension services are widely available. Contractors and national laboratories are available to large-scale farmers, while large farm-equipment does not seem to be available either. All farmers however can access the various media types and so can be easily reached to spread knowledge around IMM. Very few incentives are actually available for farmers, with only access to markets and training made available. The knowledge base around IMM is generally moderate, increasing with farm size and with education.

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Senegal

Manure Policy

Senegal’s MP is defined at regional level and is part of another policy. The Ministry of Agriculture exclusively defines the policy and as such, complementarity of the policies is not an issue. The Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Environment have almost an equal charge in responsibilities with regards to MM and cover all areas except nutrient excretion which is covered by the ministry of Energy and anaerobic digestion which is absent. Penalties against MM are very weakly defined in Senegal and there is also a very weak enforcement of prohibitions as well as stimulations for good practices. As such the burden of the manure policies on the farmers is very minimal.

Enabling Environment

There is very little available for Senegalese farmers. The government does not provide subsidies, credit, or training of any sort. Contractors, large equipment and national laboratories are also not available. The only help for farmers in Senegal appears to be subsidies by NGOs. There does appear to be wide access to various media types as everyone has access to TV and social media and fairly wide-spread access to newspapers and farmer’s magazines. The only incentives for IMM come from the NGO sector which provides training, advice and increased access to inputs. The low availability of training is also reflected in the knowledge levels with smallholders knowing very little about IMM, while staff of other farms seem to know significantly more, likely because the higher educational facilities provide excellent training.

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Togo

Manure Policy

Togo’s MP is defined at regional level and is part of another policy. The policy is also not very well defined and many specific components like stocking rate, nutrient excretion, manure storage, and manure treatment are absent. The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of manure application together with the Ministry of Environment. The Ministry of Environment has additional responsibilities in discharge, air pollution, water pollution and spatial planning of farms. Penalties against MM are very well defined in Togo, but there is a very weak enforcement of prohibitions as well as stimulations for good practices. This leaves farmers with a less heavy administrative burden related to the manure policies.

Enabling Environment

Togo provides very little financial incentives to farmer for IMM. However, there is a lot of training and extension work provided both by the government and by the NGO sector. There is however, few contractors and no large equipment available. National laboratories generally do not provide any services for the farmers. Media accessibility is widespread, although social media seems to have less traction here than in most other African countries. The incentives for IMM revolve around training and providing advice, both through government and non-government organizations. The focus on training seems to have resulted in a high level of knowledge around IMM.

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Mali

Manure Policy

In addition to the international MM policy, Mali also has policies at national level and even more specific local policies adapted to the prevalent production systems. These policies are defined by Ministries of Environment and Health which strongly complement each other. The Ministry of Agriculture takes the strongest responsibility covering the areas of herd size, nutrient excretion and manure application. Penalties against MM are very weakly defined in Mali and there is also a very weak enforcement of prohibitions as well as stimulations for good practices. As such the burden of the manure policies on the farmers is very minimal.

Enabling Environment

Mali does not provide subsidies for IMM. This is the same for both government and non-government agencies. However, there is a high degree of training available. Unlike most African countries; the national laboratories are available for all farmers. However, specific technical assistance, contractors and large farm equipment are not available. The farmers in Mali though, have good access to the various media, with the exception of social media. There are several incentives provided to improve MM, with the focus again on training and increased access to markets. There appears to be some difficulty reaching the smallholder farmers with training as their level of knowledge of IMM is low. Knowledge levels increase with farm size and education. This may be related to the fairly large number of publications available in French to Malian farmers.

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Burkina Faso

Manure Policy

In Burkina Faso, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Environment define the MM policy, which has an international and national component. The level of complementarity between the two ministries is reasonably good. The Ministry of Health takes care of spatial planning of farms and zoonotic diseases, while most other MM related aspects fall within the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Environment. Stimulation of MM in Burkina Faso is weak and it is even weaker through stimulation of good practices than through enforcement of prohibitions. Because the MM policy is not enforced by a single ministry and there is also a weak coordination between the ministries, the burden of the MM policy on farmers is quite limited.

Enabling Environment

The government of Burkina Faso does have some subsidies available. However, these are primarily for medium and large-scale farms. There are no further financial incentives for IMM. Government and non-government agencies do provide training, extension advice and technical assistance to the farmers. The National laboratories are also available for all farmers while contractors and large equipment are not. Most media reach primarily the medium and large-scale farmers, while the small holders are reliant on social media (mobile phones) and (likely) radio. Therefore it is somewhat surprising that the level of knowledge for IMM is as high as indicated, ranging from moderately to very high, even though it isn’t until agricultural colleges or vocational training that there is any degree of teaching of IMM.

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Niger

Manure Policy

Niger also has a MM policy that is embedded in other policies which is defined at regional and local levels. The main ministries involved in the MP are Agriculture and Environment and Health, which act very complimentarily to each other. The penalties for not adhering to MP well defined and the policy has a very strong focus on the stimulation of good practices and a weaker focus on prohibitions. Because the MM policy is not enforced by a single ministry and there is also a weak coordination between the ministries, which lay emphasis on manure discharge, manure storage, manure application and stocking rate. The burden of the manure policies on the farmers is very minimal.

Enabling Environment

The government of Niger does not provide any financial incentives for IMM, although the NGO sector does provide some subsidies. Both sectors provide training for all farmers as well as access to national laboratories, regardless of farm size. Large farm-equipment again is non-existent while contractors are available only to moderate and large-scale farms. All farmers again have access to the various media. Farmer’s magazines are not available. There are a number of incentives used to stimulate improved MM by all institutions mentioned. Incentives include financial incentives, training, access to inputs, lower taxes and free farm-equipment. The knowledge around IMM appears to be quite low when compared to the other African countries. However the knowledge increases with farm size and with education.

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